Conversely, those ambushers who were able to use a close connection to the topic of football received particular attention. Sponsors and ambushers are often direct competitors. Ambusher and sponsor usually come from the same industry and are direct competitors. Marketing from an ambush: Chemnitz University of Technology examined “ambush marketing” at sporting mega-events. Researchers at Chemnitz University of Technology (Zanger/Drengner/Sachse) investigated numerous studies, e.g. during the 2004 European Football Championship, the Olympic Games or Football World Cup the effects of ambush marketing. It can also happen that you are offered a mission during the game, for example to switch to another club for a short time in order to save them from relegation. Players who are between outfield players and Change goalkeeper position, must use the same number. According to the European police authority Europol, around 700 suspicious games were registered between 2008 and 2011 and a dense criminal network has firmly established itself in football, according to Europol boss Rob Wainwright. Due to violent football visitors, a high level of police presence is often necessary to secure the games. A more subtle form of advertising was the British sprinter Linford Christie's contact lenses at the 1996 Summer Olympics, with which he presented the logo of his sponsor Puma at a press conference, without Puma being an official sponsor of the Olympic Games.
In various empirical studies on major sporting events (Football World Cup, Olympic Games), Sachse was able to prove that not only the variety but also the quality of the information flowing to the consumer from sponsors and ambushers leads to the consumer's confusion regarding the correct perception of communication activities company and ultimately can lead to the situational reactance of the consumer. Official sponsors in particular lose part of the impact of their financial investment. With the signings of Takis Ikonomopoulos, Aristidis Kamaras and, above all, Takis Loukanidis, PAO ultimately formed what many experts consider to be the strongest squad in Greece's football history. The sporting goods manufacturer Nike provided an impressive example of ambush marketing with the “Go Heinrich Go” campaign, which was carried out as part of public-facing services in the area surrounding the event (e.g. public viewing). It often happens that brand manufacturer Classic ambush marketing by intrusion was the advertising of a company that was not an official sponsor on a zeppelin that circled over Nuremberg's Frankenstadion during the 2005 Confederations Cup and was also shown on television.
The German public and the German Football Association quickly spoke of a "scandalous game"; the refereeing was seen as one-sidedly favoring the Swedes and their style of play was brutal. After Brazil's style of play had already been criticized in the preliminary round games of the 2006 World Cup, they lost France lost 0-1 in the quarterfinals. Once again it was French playmaker Zinédine Zidane who led the French to a deserved victory; Thierry Henry scored the winning goal for the French. However, they lost 2-0 to France in the semi-finals on July 7, 2016 and were eliminated from the tournament. Funk made his professional debut on July 26, 2008 on the first matchday of the 2008/09 season for VfB II in the 3rd professional league against Kickers Offenbach. The French automobile company Citroën became the first and so far only foreign company to become the club's main sponsor. Sternberg will hand over the management of the Franz-Heitze-Haus. Journalists with the wrong manufacturer's imprint on their laptop are threatened with having to hand over the writing instrument. Against the backdrop of such failures for organizers and sponsors interested in protecting their marketing contracts, they tried to intensify their actions against third-party brands: With reference to house rules, Pepsi bottles were confiscated at the Olympic Games in Sydney in 2000 because Coca-Cola was the main sponsor was.
Laws have also been created in numerous states that are intended to reduce ambush marketing activities in the interest of the organizers. The organizers and the official sponsors try to “protect” themselves from ambush marketing using trademark, competition and house law. Threat for official sponsors or opportunity for advertisers? It became apparent that only massive communication measures from official sponsors offered a guarantee that an official sponsor of ambushers was able to stand out. In 2002, Bartoluzzi, Dubach and Frey defined ambush marketing as "the illicit free-riding in which an outsider profits from an event without being a sponsor himself." Ambush marketing is not a legally appropriate category. Ambush marketing is a company's planned attempt, without a takeover of an official sponsorship to be associated with a sporting event, and not a spontaneous decision or isolated advertising measure. The use of sponsorship or ambush marketing is intended to synergistically strengthen the overall effect of communication in order to achieve the existing goals of corporate communication. Konrad Zerr: Guerrilla Marketing in of communication – characteristics, mechanisms and dangers.